Determine whether a comprehensive approach to implementing national consensus guidelines for nursing home acquired pneumonia (NHAP), including influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, improves resident subject and staff vaccination rates.
Quasi-experimental, mixed-methods multifaceted intervention trial conducted at 16 nursing homes (NHs) from 1 corporation (8 in metropolitan Denver, Colorado; 8 in Kansas and Missouri) during 3 influenza seasons, October to April 2004 to 2007. Residents with 2 or more signs and symptoms of systemic lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and NH staff and physicians were eligible. Subjects' NH records were reviewed for vaccination. Each director of nursing (DON) completed a questionnaire assessing staffing and the number of direct care staff vaccinated against influenza. DONs and study liaison nurses were interviewed after the intervention. Bivariate analysis compared vaccination outcomes and covariates between intervention and control homes, and risk-adjusted models were fit. Qualitative interview transcripts were analyzed using content coding.
No statistically significant relationship between the intervention and improved resident vaccination rates was found, so other factors associated with improved rates were explored. Estimated direct patient care staff vaccination rates were better during the baseline and improved more in the intervention NHs. Qualitative results suggested that facility-specific factors and national policy changes impacted vaccination rates.
External factors influence staff and resident vaccination rates, diluting the potential impact of a comprehensive program to improve care for NHAP on vaccination.
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Supported by a grant from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, RO1-HS13608.
Published by Elsevier Inc.