Original Study| Volume 11, ISSUE 2, P132-139, February 2010

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Examining Heterogeneity of Functional Recovery Among Older Adults With Hip Fractures

Published:January 18, 2010DOI:


      To examine heterogeneity in 1-year functional recovery following postacute rehabilitation among older adults with hip fracture.


      Two hundred twenty-five community-dwelling older adults with hip fracture who received postacute rehabilitation in 5 rehabilitation facilities in Baltimore, Maryland, were recruited during postacute rehabilitation (baseline) and follow-up at 2, 6, and 12 months following postacute rehabilitation discharge. Functional recovery was measured by the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scores. A mixed-effect model was used to examine factors associated with postacute rehabilitation functional recovery; fixed and random effects estimates from the models were used to demonstrate heterogeneity in functional recovery.


      Results indicated that there was an overall trend in both ADL and IADL functional improvement at 2 months following postacute rehabilitation, with continued improvement to 6 months, after which functional recovery slowed down and remained constant through the year. Individuals whose functional recovery did not conform to these patterns were identified and their functional recovery that deviated substantially from the group mean was demonstrated.


      Functional recovery patterns in elderly hip fracture patients are heterogeneous. To foster functional independence, health care professionals should consider individual recovery trajectories using a modeling approach appropriate for longitudinal or repeated measurement data such as a linear mixed-effects model when designing individualized rehabilitation and postacute rehabilitation care plans.


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