Original Study| Volume 13, ISSUE 8, P704-707, October 2012

ApoE and Quality of Life in Nonagenarians

Published:August 06, 2012DOI:



      ApoE ε4 is associated with adverse health conditions that negatively impact the quality of life (QOL). The relationship between ApoE ε4 and QOL has not been explored in the oldest old. Our study aimed to examine ApoE in the oldest old and explore its association with QOL.


      Cross-sectional cohort study.


      A medium sized community in Olmsted County, Minnesota.


      Individuals aged 90 to 99 years, living independently or in long term care environments.


      We collected demographic information and measured cognitive function (Short Test of Mental Status, Mini-Mental State Examination, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale), QOL (Linear Analogue Self Assessment), and ApoE distribution. Subjects were classified as cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, or dementia with stroke and/or parkinsonism (DEMSP). Regression model was used to assess the predictors of QOL.


      A total of 121 subjects (45 cognitively normal, 13 with mild cognitive impairment, 34 with dementia, 29 DEMSP) aged 90–99 years, 106 (87.6 %) females, were included. Frequency of ApoE ε3 allele was highest (194 [80.2%]: ε2/3 18, ε3/3 77, ε3/4 22) followed by ApoE ε4 (25 [10.3%]: ε2/4 3, ε3/4 22) and ApoE ε2 (23 [9.5%; ε2/2 1, ε2/3 18, ε2/4 3). None of the subjects carried ApoE ε4/4 genotype. QOL was similar between ApoE ε4 carrier and noncarriers. Physical well-being, emotional well-being, intellectual well-being, social connectedness, and coping ability were positively associated with QOL, whereas male sex, DEMSP, pain frequency, and pain severity were negatively associated.


      The most common ApoE in the oldest old was ε3/3 genotype and ε3 allele. No association was found between ApoE ε4 and QOL. However, those with high physical, emotional and intellectual well being, social connectedness, and coping ability had the highest overall QOL.


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