Infection with the spirochete Treponema pallidum is the cause of syphilis, a sexually
transmitted disease. Disease staging includes primary, secondary, tertiary, and latent
stages. Diagnosis is made primarily through antibody testing, as T. pallidum cannot
be grown in culture. Neurosyphilis occurs when T. pallidum invades the central nervous
system via cerebrospinal fluid, and can be defined as early or late stage. Early neurosyphilis
invades CSF, meninges, and blood vessels. The brain and spinal cord are attacked in
late neurosyphilis. According to the literature, hearing loss and tinnitus are common
presenting symptoms of otosyphilis, occurring in respectively 90% and 72% of cases.
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