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A Systematic Review of Malnutrition Screening Tools for the Nursing Home Setting

Published:December 02, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2013.10.006

      Abstract

      Rationale

      Malnutrition screening among nursing home residents is often performed with tools developed for use among older subjects, and sometimes with tools designed for an adult population. Only a few tools have been designed specifically for the nursing home setting. This systematic review assesses the criterion and predictive validity of malnutrition screening tools used in nursing homes.

      Methods

      The databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched on January 30, 2013, for manuscripts including search terms for malnutrition, screening or assessment tools, and setting. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they expressed criterion validity (how well can a tool assess nutritional status) or predictive validity (how well can a tool predict clinical outcome) of malnutrition screening tools in a nursing home population. Included were articles that had been published in the English, German, French, Dutch, Spanish, or Portuguese language.

      Results

      The search yielded 8313 references. Of these, 24 met the inclusion criteria and were available; 2 extra manuscripts were retrieved by reference checking. Twenty tools were identified. Seventeen studies reported on criterion validity, and 9 on predictive validity. Four of the tools had been designed specifically for use in long term care. None of the tools, not even the ones specifically designed for the nursing home setting, performed (on average) better than “fair” in either assessing the residents' nutritional status or in predicting malnutrition-related outcomes.

      Conclusion

      The use of existing screening tools for the nursing home population carries limitations, as none performs better than “fair” in assessing nutritional status or in predicting outcome. Also, no superior tool can be pointed out. This systematic review implies that further considerations regarding malnutrition screening among nursing home residents are required.

      Keywords

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