Original Study| Volume 17, ISSUE 1, P44-52, January 01, 2016

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Factors Associated With Changes in Perceived Quality of Life Among Elderly Recipients of Long-Term Services and Supports

Published:September 24, 2015DOI:



      Advance knowledge about changes in multiple dimensions of health related quality of life (HRQoL) among older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS) over time and across settings.


      A prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort design.


      Nursing homes (NHs), assisted living facilities (ALFs), community.


      A total of 470 older adults who were first-time recipients of LTSS.


      Single-item quality-of-life measure assessed every 3 months over 2 years. HRQoL domains of emotional status, functional status, and social support were measured using standardized instruments.


      Multivariable mixed effects model with time varying covariates revealed that quality-of-life ratings decreased over time (P < .001). Quality-of-life ratings were higher among enrollees with fewer depressive symptoms (P < .001), higher general physical function (P < .001), enhanced emotional well-being (P < .001), and greater social support (P = .004). Ratings also were higher among those with increased deficits in activities of daily living (P = .02). Ratings were highest among enrollees who received LTSS from ALFs, followed by NHs, then home and community-based services (H&CBS), but only findings between ALFs and H&CBS were statistically significant (P < .001). Finally, ratings tended to decrease over time among enrollees with greater cognitive impairment and increase over time among enrollees with less cognitive impairment (P < .001).


      Findings advance knowledge regarding what is arguably the most important outcome of elderly LTSS recipients: quality of life. Understanding associations between multiple HRQoL domains and quality of life over time and directly from LTSS recipients represents a critical step in enhancing care processes and outcomes of this vulnerable population.


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