A vast variety of chronic diseases is associated with changes in body composition. Reduced lean mass, that is, skeletal muscle mass, is particularly important with regard to the patients' quality of life, because it may yield reductions in exercise capacity and activities of daily living.
1Skeletal muscle mass of both arms and legs combined has been termed appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The term sarcopenia describes a status in which this appendicular skeletal muscle mass decreases in excess of 2 SDs of the mean of a healthy young reference population.
- Sakuma K.
- Yamaguchi A.
Sarcopenia and cachexia: The adaptations of negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2012; 3: 77-94
- Morley J.E.
- Abbatecola A.M.
- Argiles J.M.
- et al.
Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders Trialist Workshop
Sarcopenia with limited mobility: An international consensus.
Sarcopenia with limited mobility: An international consensus.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011; 12: 403-409
- von Haehling S.
- Morley J.E.
- Anker S.D.
From muscle wasting to sarcopenia and myopenia: Update 2012.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2012; 3: 213-217
4In this context, it is important to note that sarcopenia per se is not usually associated with weight loss. Therefore, sophisticated technologies are required to describe this condition and to make a correct diagnosis. Cachexia, on the other hand, describes a condition that is associated with loss of more than 5% of body weight over 12 months or less and the presence of a chronic illness, such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, or cancer.
- Alchin D.R.
Sarcopenia: Describing rather than defining a condition.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2014; 5: 265-268
5The presence of cachexia can be diagnosed just by using weighing scales and by comparing the patient's stated body weight 1 year ago with his or her present weight.
- Evans W.J.
- Morley J.E.
- Argilés J.
- et al.
Cachexia: A new definition.
Clin Nutr. 2008; 27: 793-799
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