Prevalence of Frailty Assessed by Fried and Kihon Checklist Indexes in a Prospective Cohort Study: Design and Demographics of the Kyoto-Kameoka Longitudinal Study



      The Kyoto-Kameoka Study was launched in 2011–2012 to identify the associations among food intake, nutritional status, physical activity, oral function, quality of life or social capital, the use of long-term care insurance (LTCI) system, and healthy lifespan in community-dwelling older people as a part of the World Health Organization Safe Community program.


      A prospective cohort study, reporting baseline demographics (cross-sectional data).

      Setting and participants

      We conducted 2 mailed self-administered questionnaire surveys; one is a complete population survey with a comprehensive survey of needs in the sphere of daily life (NSDL) that included 2 different frailty indexes, the Kihon Checklist (KCL) and the Fried phenotype, socioeconomic status, general and psychological health, and social relationships; followed by the more detailed Health and Nutrition Survey. A slightly modified NSDL survey was conducted again in 2013. Survival time, LTCI certification, and medical and long-term care costs after the baseline survey will be followed.


      Of 18,231 NSDL questionnaires distributed, 13,294 people responded (response rate: 72.92%; mean age 73.7 ± 6.4 and 75.1 ± 7.2 years for men and women, respectively; 12,054 people without and 1240 with LTCI certification). In people without LTCI, the proportion of robust, prefrail, and frail were 30.3%, 59.8%, and 9.9% in men and 25.3%, 64.7%, and 10.0% in women, according to the Fried index. The proportion of frail people as defined by KCL ≥7 was 30.8% in men and 33.3% in women.


      The study is the first to document frailty prevalence using both Fried and KCL measures with a complete city population survey among older Japanese in the community as a part of World Health Organization Safe Community program. The study is expected to provide valuable evidence of the effects of lifestyle habits on long-term care prevention and healthy life span.


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