Advertisement

“Healthy Aging” Concepts and Measures

      In 2016, more than 3000 new scientific articles were devoted to “healthy aging” and more than 500 were focused on “successful aging.” Trying to digest this prolific literature highlights the current confusion surrounding the exact meaning of, and ways to operationalize and measure these 2 terms. Two recent publications contribute to the current understanding of these concepts.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Kusumastutia S.
        • Derksb M.G.
        • Tellier S.
        • et al.
        Successful ageing: A study of the literature using citation network analysis.
        Maturitas. 2016; 93: 4-12
        • Jagger C.
        • Matthews F.E.
        • Wohland P.
        • et al.
        A comparison of health expectancies over two decades in England: Results of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study I and II.
        Lancet. 2016; 387: 779-786
        • Young Y.
        • Frick K.D.
        • Phelan E.A.
        Can successful aging and chronic illness coexist in the same individual? A multidimensional concept of successful aging.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2009; 10: 87-92
        • Albrecht G.L.
        • Devlieger P.J.
        The disability paradox: High quality of life against all odds.
        Soc Sci Med. 1999; 48: 977-988
        • World Health Organization
        1st world report on Ageing and Health.
        WHO, Geneva2015
        • World Health Organization
        Constitution of the World Health Organization.
        WHO, Geneva, Switzerland1948
        • Worid Health Organization
        Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion.
        WHO, Geneva1986
        • Smith R.
        The end of disease and the beginning of health.
        2008 (Available at: http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2008/07/08/richard-smith-the-end-of-disease-and-the-beginning-of-health/. Accessed April 17, 2017.)
        • Hanson M.A.
        • Cooper C.
        • Aihie Sayer A.
        • et al.
        Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing.
        J Physiol. 2016; 594: 2147-2160
        • Sadana R.
        • Blas E.
        • Budhwani S.
        • et al.
        Healthy ageing: Raising awareness of inequalities, determinants, and what could be done to improve health equity.
        Gerontologist. 2016; 56: S178-S193
        • Mount S.
        • Lara J.
        • Schols A.M.
        • Mathers J.C.
        Towards a multidimensional healthy ageing phenotype.
        Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016; 19: 418-426
        • World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe
        Charting the way to well-being.
        World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark2012
        • Brussow H.
        What is health?.
        Microb Biotechnol. 2013; 6: 341-348
        • Rowe J.W.
        • Kahn R.L.
        Successful Aging 2.0: Conceptual expansions for the 21st century.
        J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2015; 70: 593-596
        • Martin P.
        • Kelly N.
        • Kahana B.
        • et al.
        Defining successful aging: A tangible or elusive concept?.
        Gerontologist. 2015; 55: 14-25
        • Erikson E.H.
        Childhood and society.
        Norton, New York1950
        • Cumming E.
        • Henry W.E.
        Growing old: The process of disengagement.
        Basic Books, New York1961
        • Havighurst R.J.
        Successful aging.
        Gerontologist. 1961; 1: 8-13
        • Havighurst R.J.
        Successful aging.
        in: Williams R.H. Tibbitts C. Donahue W. Processes of Aging. Atherton Press, New York1963: 299-320
        • Katz S.
        • Ford A.B.
        • Moskowitz R.W.
        • et al.
        Studies of illness in the aged. The Index of ADL: A standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function.
        JAMA. 1963; 185: 914-919
        • Neugarten B.L.
        Personality and the aging process.
        Gerontologist. 1972; 12: 9-15
        • Rowe J.W.
        • Kahn R.L.
        Human aging: Usual and successful.
        Science. 1987; 237: 143-149
        • Rowe J.W.
        • Kahn R.L.
        Successful aging.
        Aging (Milano). 1998; 10: 142-144
        • Baltes P.B.
        • Baltes M.M.
        Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences.
        Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom1990
        • Butler R.
        • Oberlink M.
        • Schecter M.
        The promise of productive aging.
        Springe, New York1990
        • World Health Organization (WHO)
        Active ageing: A policy framework.
        World Health Organization, Geneva2002
      1. Press release: Civic engagemnent of in an older America. 2004. Available at: http://www.civicengagement.org/agingsociety/Pages%20from%20Geron-NLSept05.pdf Accessed Febuary 4, 2017.

        • Martinson M.
        • Minkler M.
        Civic engagement and older adults: A critical perspective.
        Gerontologist. 2006; 46: 318-324
        • Tornstam L.
        Gerotranscendence: A developmental theory of positive aging.
        Springer Publishing Company, New York2005
      2. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Healthy Ageing: A challenge for Europe, 2006.

        • Fry C.L.
        • Dickerson-Putman J.
        • Draper P.
        • et al.
        Culture and the meaning of a good old age.
        in: Sokolovsky J. The cultural context of aging: Worldwide perspectives. Bergin and Garvey, Westport, CT2007: 104
        • Jeste D.V.
        • Depp C.A.
        • Vahia I.V.
        Successful cognitive and emotional aging.
        World Psychiatry. 2010; 9: 78-84
        • European Commission
        How to promote active ageing in Europe: EU support to local and regional actors.
        European Commission, European Union-Committee of the Regions and Ageplatform Europe, Brussels2011
        • Hicks M.M.
        • Conner N.E.
        Resilient ageing: A concept analysis.
        J Adv Nurs. 2014; 70: 744-755
        • World Health Organization
        WHO global strategy and action plan on ageing and health (2016–2020).
        WHO, Geneva2016
        • World Health Organisation
        The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).
        WHO, Geneva2001
        • Üstün T.B.
        • Kostanjsek N.
        • Chatterji S.
        • Rehm J.
        Measuring Health and Disability Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule, WHO DAS 2.0.
        WHO, Geneva2010
        • Sadana R.
        Development of Standardized Health State Descriptions.
        World Health Organization, Geneva2002
        • Phelan E.A.
        • Larson E.B.
        “Successful aging”—Where next?.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50: 1306-1308
        • Sabia S.
        • Singh-Manoux A.
        • Hagger-Johnson G.
        • et al.
        Influence of individual and combined healthy behaviours on successful aging.
        CMAJ. 2012; 184: 1985-1992
        • Tyrovolas S.
        • Haro J.M.
        • Mariolis A.
        • et al.
        Successful aging, dietary habits and health status of elderly individuals: A k-dimensional approach within the multi-national MEDIS study.
        Exp Gerontol. 2014; 60: 57-63
        • Bousquet J.
        • Kuh D.
        • Bewick M.
        • et al.
        Operational definition of active and healthy ageing (AHA): A conceptual framework.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2015; 19: 955-960
        • Cosco T.D.
        • Stephan B.C.
        • Brayne C.
        Validation of an a priori, index model of successful aging in a population-based cohort study: The successful aging index.
        Int Psychogeriatr. 2015; 27: 1971-1977
        • Lara J.
        • Cooper R.
        • Nissan J.
        • et al.
        A proposed panel of biomarkers of healthy ageing.
        BMC Med. 2015; 13: 222
        • Assmann K.E.
        • Andreeva V.A.
        • Camilleri G.M.
        • et al.
        Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.
        Br J Nutr. 2016; 116: 666-676
        • Tampubolon G.
        Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004–2013.
        Maturitas. 2016; 88: 9-15
        • Jaspers L.
        • Schoufour J.D.
        • Erler N.S.
        • et al.
        Development of a healthy aging score in the population-based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating age and sex differences.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017;
      3. Gateway to Global Ageing Data. A platform for population survey data on aging around the world.

        • Bann D.
        • Johnson W.
        • Li L.
        • et al.
        Socioeconomic Inequalities in body mass index across adulthood: Coordinated analyses of individual participant data from three British birth cohort studies initiated in 1946, 1958, and 1970.
        PLoS Med. 2017; 14: e1002214
        • Hagger-Johnson G.
        • Carr E.
        • Murray E.
        • et al.
        Association between midlife health behaviours and transitions out of employment from midlife to early old age: Whitehall II cohort study.
        BMC Public Health. 2017; 17: 82
        • Stafford M.
        • Cooper R.
        • Cadar D.
        • et al.
        Physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood as determinants of retirement and extended working life in a British cohort study.
        Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017; 43: 15-23
        • Fabbri E.
        • Zoli M.
        • Gonzalez-Freire M.
        • et al.
        Aging and multimorbidity: New tasks, priorities, and frontiers for integrated gerontological and clinical research.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015; 16: 640-647
        • Woo J.
        • Leung J.
        • Zhang T.
        Successful aging and frailty: Opposite sides of the same coin?.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016; 17: 797-801
        • Michel J.-P.
        • Dreux C.
        • Vacheron A.
        Healthy ageing: Evidence that improvement is possible at every age.
        Eur Geriatr Med. 2016; 4: 298-305
        • Chen L.-K.
        Towards the life course approach of healthy aging.
        Eur Geriatr Med. 2016; 7: 289-290
        • Strandberg T.
        Healthy ageing: Evidence that improvement is possible at every age.
        Eur Geriatr Med. 2016; 7: 293-294
        • Barbagallo M.
        • Dominguez L.J.
        Healthy ageing: From a myth to a reality.
        Eur Geriatr Med. 2016; 7: 298
        • Friedman S.M.
        Response to “Healthy ageing: Evidence that improvement is possible at every age”.
        Eur Geriatr Med. 2016; 7: 295
        • Arai H.
        Response to “Healthy ageing: Evidence that improvement is possible at every age”.
        Eur Geriatr Med. 2016; 7: 296
        • Sadana R.
        Commentary on healthy ageing: Evidence that improvement is possible at every age.
        Eur Geriatr Med. 2016; 7: 291-292