To examine the association between use of opioids versus other analgesics with death and functioning after hip fracture in older nursing home (NH) residents.
Retrospective cohort using national Medicare fee-for-service claims linked to the Minimum Data Set.
NH residents aged ≥65 years who became a long-stay resident (>100 days in the NH) between January 2008 and December 2009, had a hospitalized hip fracture, and returned to the NH.
New use of opioid versus nonopioid analgesics (acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) within 14 days post hip fracture.
Follow-up began on the index date and continued until the first occurrence of death, significant functional decline (3-point increase on MDS Activities of Daily Living scale), or 120 days of follow-up. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were estimated using inverse probability of treatment–weighted multinomial logistic regression models.
Among the 2755 NH residents with a hip fracture included in our study, 1155 (41.9%) were opioid users, and 1600 (58.1%) were nonopioid analgesic users. The mean age was 86.3 years, 73.8% were female, and 86.0% were white. Opioid use was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of death (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.39-0.56) and a nonsignificant decrease in functional decline (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.58-1.03).
A rigorous study that addresses the limitations of this study is critical to validate our preliminary findings and provide evidence about the effect of using opioid versus nonopioid analgesics to optimize acute pain in NH residents with a hip fracture.
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Published online: December 26, 2017
Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.