Original Study| Volume 22, ISSUE 8, P1726-1734.e8, August 2021

Developing a Fracture Risk Clinical Assessment Protocol for Long-Term Care: A Modified Delphi Consensus Process

Published:September 21, 2020DOI:



      To develop a fracture risk Clinical Assessment Protocol (CAP) based on long-term care (LTC) fracture prevention recommendations and an embedded fracture risk assessment tool.


      A modified Delphi consensus approach including 2 survey rounds and a face-to-face meeting was implemented to reach consensus on matching of LTC fracture prevention guideline statements to Fracture Risk Scale (FRS) risk levels.

      Setting and Participants

      A national panel of recognized experts in osteoporosis, fractures, and long-term care, including an LTC resident and family members.


      Round 1 survey respondents (n = 24) were provided the LTC fracture prevention guidelines matched to FRS risk levels and were asked whether they agreed the guideline was appropriate for the risk level (yes, no, I don't know, I agree with some but not all of it) and to provide comments. In round 2, guideline statements that did not achieve consensus (≥80% agreement) were revised consistent with comments provided in round 1 and respondents were asked again if they agreed with the guideline statement. Statements that did not achieve consensus were to be discussed and resolved in an in-person meeting (n = 17).


      In round 1 (75% response rate), consensus was achieved in 7/14 guideline statements. In round 2 (56% response rate), 5 statements were revised based on round 1 feedback and for 2 statements additional information was provided. Consensus was achieved in all but one statement related to the inappropriateness of pharmacologic therapy for residents with life expectancy less than 1 year. Following facilitated meeting discussions, consensus was obtained to revise the guideline statement to reflect that life expectancy was but one of several criteria that should be used to inform medication decisions.

      Conclusions and Implications

      An evidence-based fracture risk CAP was developed that will be embedded in international routine clinical assessment tools to guide fracture prevention in LTC.


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