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A Proactive Nursing Home Risk Stratification Model for Disaster Response: Lessons Learned from COVID-19 to Optimize Resource Allocation

      Abstract

      A coordinated emergency management response to disaster management in nursing homes is desperately needed globally.
      During the most recent COVID-19 pandemic, aside from a few exemplary countries, most countries have struggled to protect their nursing home populations. Timely and appropriate allocation of resources to nursing homes during disaster response is a challenging yet crucial task to prevent morbidity and mortality of residents.
      The responsibility for the management of nursing homes during the pandemic was multifaceted, and responsibilities lay at the national, jurisdictional, and regional levels. Success in managing COVID-19 in nursing homes required all these levels to be aligned and supportive, ideally through management by an emergency response leadership team. However, globally there is a paucity of effective management strategies.
      This article uses the example of the COVID-19 pandemic to propose a risk stratification system to ensure timely and appropriate allocation of resources to nursing homes during disaster preparation and management. Nursing homes should be risk-stratified according to 4 domains: risk of intrusion, capability for outbreak containment, failure in organizational capability, and failure in the availability of community and health care supports. Risk stratification should also consider factors such as current levels of community transmission, if applicable, and geographic location of nursing homes and services.
      Early identification of nursing homes at risk for infectious disease, or disasters, and targeted allocation of resources might help reduce the number of outbreaks, lower the mortality, and preserve community supports such as acute hospital services. The next step is to debate this concept to validate the selected variables and then develop and pilot test a risk stratification tool for use.

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