Advertisement

Prediction of Reduced Gait Speed Using 5-Time Sit-to-Stand Test in Healthy Older Adults

Published:November 27, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.11.002

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To determine the accuracy of the 5-time stand-to-sit (5TSTS) test for the identification of older adults with reduced gait speed.

      Design

      Cross-sectional study.

      Setting and Participants

      A total of 559 community-dwelling older adults were included in the study, divided into groups of women (n = 465) and men (n = 94).

      Methods

      5TSTS and gait speed were assessed. Multiple linear regression analysis with adjustment was performed in order to determine the association between 5TSTS and gait speed, followed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the identification of the usefulness of 5TSTS to discriminate older adults with reduced gait speed. Based on the ROC curve, we identified the area under the curve, the sensitivity, specificity, and cutoff points of the 5TSST. Statistical analyses were made using the SPSS software (version 25.0), and a significance level of 5% (P ≤ .05) was adopted.

      Results

      The 5TSTS showed correlation with gait speed. Additionally, 5TSTS was able to discriminate reduced gait speed with moderate accuracy (P < .05; AUC between 0.7 and 0.8). For women, the cutoff scores for 5TSTS to identify gait speed <0.8 m/s was 14.15 seconds; for gait speed <1.0 m/s, it was 12.67 seconds. For men, the cutoff scores for 5TSTS to identify gait speed <0.8 m/s was 14.67 seconds, and for gait speed <1.0 m/s, it was 13.63 seconds.

      Conclusion and Implications

      The 5TSTS is clinically useful and can be an alternative assessment for discriminating community-dwelling older adults with reduced gait speed, when the gait evaluation is not feasible. The study also suggests different cutoff values for 5TSTS considering the gait speeds <0.8 and <1.0 m/s for older women and men, respectively.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Middleton A.
        • Fritz S.L.
        • Lusardi M.
        Walking speed: the functional vital sign.
        J Aging Phys Act. 2015; 23: 314-322
        • Studenski S.
        • Perera S.
        • Wallace D.
        • et al.
        Physical performance measures in the clinical setting.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51: 314-322
        • Cesari M.
        • Kritchevsky S.B.
        • Penninx B.W.
        • et al.
        Prognostic value of usual gait speed in well-functioning older people--results from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53: 1675-1680
        • Fritz S.
        • Lusardi M.
        White paper: “walking speed: the sixth vital sign.”.
        J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2009; 32: 46-49
        • Abellan van Kan G.
        • Rolland Y.
        • Andrieu S.
        • et al.
        Gait speed at usual pace as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people an International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (IANA) Task Force.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2009; 13: 881-889
        • Studenski S.
        • Perera S.
        • Patel K.
        • et al.
        Gait speed and survival in older adults.
        JAMA. 2011; 305: 50-58
        • Apolinario D.
        • Lichtenthaler D.G.
        • Magaldi R.M.
        • et al.
        Using temporal orientation, category fluency, and word recall for detecting cognitive impairment: the 10-point Cognitive Screener (10-CS).
        Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016; 31: 4-12
        • Matsudo S.
        • Araújo T.
        • Matsudo V.
        • et al.
        Questionário internacional de atividade física (IPAQ): Estudo de validade e reprodutibilidade no Brasil.
        Atividade Física Saúde. 2001; 6: 5-18
        • Bohannon R.W.
        Reference values for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test: a descriptive meta-analysis of data from elders.
        Percept Mot Skills. 2006; 103: 215-222
        • Ribeiro A.M.P.
        • Gomes M.M.
        • Rosa R.C.
        • De Abreu D.C.C.
        Is the history of falls an indicative of greater decline in quadriceps muscle function and postural sway?.
        Topics Geriatr Rehabil. 2012; 28: 60-66
        • Magnani P.E.
        • Freire Junior R.C.
        • Zanellato N.F.G.
        • Genovez M.B.
        • Alvarenga I.C.
        • Abreu D.C.C.
        The influence of aging on the spatial and temporal variables of gait during usual and fast speeds in older adults aged 60 to 102 years.
        Hum Mov Sci. 2019; 68: 102540
        • Akobeng A.K.
        Understanding diagnostic tests 3: receiver operating characteristic curves.
        Acta Paediatr. 2007; 96: 644-647
        • Ramírez-Vélez R.
        • Pérez-Sousa M.A.
        • Venegas-Sanabria L.C.
        • et al.
        Normative Values for the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and their association with anthropometric variables in older Colombian adults. The SABE Study, 2015.
        Front Med (Lausanne). 2020; 7: 52
        • Martinez-Amezcua P.
        • Powell D.
        • Kuo P.L.
        • et al.
        Association of age-related hearing impairment with physical functioning among community-dwelling older adults in the US.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2021; 4: e2113742
        • Zhang F.
        • Ferrucci L.
        • Culham E.
        • Metter E.J.
        • Guralnik J.
        • Deshpande N.
        Performance on five times sit-to-stand task as a predictor of subsequent falls and disability in older persons.
        J Aging Health. 2013; 25: 478-492
        • Correia M.A.
        • Cucato G.G.
        • Lanza F.C.
        • et al.
        Relationship between gait speed and physical function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease.
        Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2019; 74: e1254
        • Yee X.S.
        • Ng Y.S.
        • Allen J.C.
        • et al.
        Performance on sit-to-stand tests in relation to measures of functional fitness and sarcopenia diagnosis in community-dwelling older adults.
        Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 2021; 18: 1
        • Bernabeu-Mora R.
        • Medina-Mirapeix F.
        • Llamazares-Herrán E.
        • Oliveira-Sousa S.L.
        • Sánchez-Martinez M.P.
        • Escolar-Reina P.
        The accuracy with which the 5 times sit-to-stand test, versus gait speed, can identify poor exercise tolerance in patients with COPD: a cross-sectional study.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95: e4740
        • Montero-Odasso M.
        • Schapira M.
        • Soriano E.R.
        • et al.
        Gait velocity as a single predictor of adverse events in healthy senior aged 75 years and older.
        J Gerontol Med Sci. 2005; 60: 1304-1309