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Interprofessional Collaboration in Long-Term Care and Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review

Open AccessPublished:January 19, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.12.028

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To examine facilitators of and barriers to interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in institutional long-term care (LTC) and geriatric rehabilitation (GR), and to provide an overview of instruments used to assess IPC in LTC and GR.

      Design

      Systematic integrative review.

      Setting and Participants

      Institutional long-term care and geriatric rehabilitation.

      Methods

      We systematically searched relevant databases for articles using the terms interprofessional collaboration, interdisciplinary, long-term care, geriatric rehabilitation, elderly, facilitators, and barriers. We conducted a systematic integrative review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis method. Papers containing empirical data about barriers to and facilitators of IPC in LTC and GR were included. The Mixed Method Appraisal Tool was used for quality assessment. Data were analyzed using qualitative thematical analysis.

      Results

      Three interdependent themes regarding facilitators of and barriers to IPC emerged: Team performance, Organizational conditions, and Sharing information. Eight instruments were used to assess IPC in LTC and none for GR. Limited descriptions and insufficient psychometric qualities of the instruments were reported.

      Conclusions and Implications

      To enhance IPC, it is necessary to stimulate facilitators and limit barriers on all 3 themes. Furthermore, a reliable, validated instrument to assess IPC in LTC and GR, based on a clear definition of IPC is needed. Successful IPC when caring for patients with multimorbidity in LTC and GR requires integration, understanding, and recognition of the interdependency from all persons involved, including patients and family caregivers.

      Keywords

      Multimorbidity is common in older patients in institutional long-term care (LTC) and geriatric rehabilitation (GR).
      American Geriatrics Society
      Guiding principles for the care of older adults with multimorbidity: an approach for clinicians: American Geriatrics Society Expert Panel on the Care of Older Adults with Multimorbidity.
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      New horizons in multimorbidity in older adults.
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      Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: a cross-sectional study.
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      • McGovern A.
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      Interprofessional and transdisciplinary teamwork in health care.
      This necessitates an approach that enables optimal collaboration between health care professionals from various professional disciplines.
      • Barnett K.
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      • Norbury M.
      • Watt G.
      • Wyke S.
      • Guthrie B.
      Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Choi B.C.
      • Pak A.W.
      Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in health research, services, education and policy: 1. Definitions, objectives, and evidence of effectiveness.
      ,
      • Long A.F.
      • Kneafsey R.
      • Ryan J.
      Rehabilitation practice: challenges to effective team working.
      ,
      • Clegg A.
      • Young J.
      • Iliffe S.
      • Rikkert M.O.
      • Rockwood K.
      Frailty in elderly people.
      • Ellis G.
      • Sevdalis N.
      Understanding and improving multidisciplinary team working in geriatric medicine.
      • Halabisky B.
      • Humbert J.
      • Stodel E.J.
      • et al.
      eLearning, knowledge brokering, and nursing: strengthening collaborative practice in long-term care.
      • Nancarrow S.
      Dynamic role boundaries in intermediate care services.
      • Butterill D.
      • O'Hanlon J.
      • Book H.E.
      When the system is the problem, don't blame the patient: Problems inherent in the interdisciplinary inpatient team.
      • Fewster-Thuente L.
      • Velsor-Friedrich B.
      Interdisciplinary collaboration for healthcare professionals.
      • Furman C.D.
      • Kelly S.E.
      • Knapp K.
      • Mowery R.L.
      • Miles T.
      Eliciting goals of care in a nursing home.
      • Körner M.
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      • Plewnia A.
      • et al.
      A cluster-randomized controlled study to evaluate a team coaching concept for improving teamwork and patient-centeredness in rehabilitation teams.
      • Wells N.D.
      • Johnson R.N.
      • Salyer S.
      Interdisciplinary collaboration.
      The World Health Organization (WHO) defines interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in health care as multiple health workers from different professional backgrounds providing comprehensive services by working with patients, their families, carers, and communities to deliver the highest quality of care across settings.
      • Gilbert J.H.
      • Yan J.
      • Hoffman S.J.
      A WHO report: framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice.
      To accomplish IPC in LTC and GR, health care professionals are faced with profound challenges. Because of their monodisciplinary education, they are used to functioning within their role boundaries.
      • Halabisky B.
      • Humbert J.
      • Stodel E.J.
      • et al.
      eLearning, knowledge brokering, and nursing: strengthening collaborative practice in long-term care.
      ,
      • Nancarrow S.
      Dynamic role boundaries in intermediate care services.
      Health care professionals also have their own treatment preferences and speak their own professional language.
      • Butterill D.
      • O'Hanlon J.
      • Book H.E.
      When the system is the problem, don't blame the patient: Problems inherent in the interdisciplinary inpatient team.
      Appreciation of other professionals' roles, and recognizing the importance of interdependence is often challenging in practice, because of the limited knowledge of each other's professional competences.
      • Lloyd V.
      • Schneider J.
      • Scales K.
      • Bailey S.
      • Jones R.
      Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
      To accomplish effective IPC in order to optimize comprehensive care for older patients with multimorbidity, effective communication and beneficial relationships are a prerequisite.
      • Bokhour B.G.
      Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
      ,
      • Robison J.
      • Curry L.
      • Gruman C.
      • Porter M.
      • Henderson Jr., C.R.
      • Pillemer K.
      Partners in caregiving in a special care environment: cooperative communication between staff and families on dementia units.
      To date, research on IPC has focused mainly on primary care, and hospital settings in which patients generally are treated for medical care over short time periods. In comparison, older patients in LTC and GR are affected by multimorbidity and geriatric syndromes requiring treatment for multiple and extensive time periods. The complexity involves multiple domains (eg, medical, physical, psychological, and social), which necessitates comprehensive treatment by professionals with complementary knowledge, collaborating for an extensive time period.
      • Barnett K.
      • Mercer S.W.
      • Norbury M.
      • Watt G.
      • Wyke S.
      • Guthrie B.
      Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Grund S.
      • Gordon A.L.
      • van Balen R.
      • et al.
      European consensus on core principles and future priorities for geriatric rehabilitation: consensus statement.
      ,
      • Berish D.E.
      The residential long-term care role in health care transitions.
      With insight into facilitators of and barriers to IPC in LTC and GR, we can optimize collaboration to improve care for the increasing complexity in older patients with multimorbidity.
      • Barnett K.
      • Mercer S.W.
      • Norbury M.
      • Watt G.
      • Wyke S.
      • Guthrie B.
      Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Choi B.C.
      • Pak A.W.
      Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in health research, services, education and policy: 1. Definitions, objectives, and evidence of effectiveness.
      ,
      • Long A.F.
      • Kneafsey R.
      • Ryan J.
      Rehabilitation practice: challenges to effective team working.
      ,
      • Clegg A.
      • Young J.
      • Iliffe S.
      • Rikkert M.O.
      • Rockwood K.
      Frailty in elderly people.
      • Ellis G.
      • Sevdalis N.
      Understanding and improving multidisciplinary team working in geriatric medicine.
      • Halabisky B.
      • Humbert J.
      • Stodel E.J.
      • et al.
      eLearning, knowledge brokering, and nursing: strengthening collaborative practice in long-term care.
      • Nancarrow S.
      Dynamic role boundaries in intermediate care services.
      • Butterill D.
      • O'Hanlon J.
      • Book H.E.
      When the system is the problem, don't blame the patient: Problems inherent in the interdisciplinary inpatient team.
      • Fewster-Thuente L.
      • Velsor-Friedrich B.
      Interdisciplinary collaboration for healthcare professionals.
      • Furman C.D.
      • Kelly S.E.
      • Knapp K.
      • Mowery R.L.
      • Miles T.
      Eliciting goals of care in a nursing home.
      • Körner M.
      • Luzay L.
      • Plewnia A.
      • et al.
      A cluster-randomized controlled study to evaluate a team coaching concept for improving teamwork and patient-centeredness in rehabilitation teams.
      • Wells N.D.
      • Johnson R.N.
      • Salyer S.
      Interdisciplinary collaboration.
      This study focuses on identifying facilitators of and barriers to IPC in LTC and GR. The primary aim of this systematic review is to examine the facilitators of and barriers to IPC in LTC and GR settings. A secondary aim is to provide an overview of instruments used to assess IPC in the LTC and GR. This study provides recommendations that can guide decision makers and care practice in the LTC and GR.

      Methods

      This review used a systematic approach following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for the identification of articles,
      • Moher D.
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      • Altman D.G.
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      ,
      • Liberati A.
      • Altman D.G.
      • Tetzlaff J.
      • et al.
      The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.
      and an integrative review methodology
      • Whittemore R.
      • Knafl K.
      The integrative review: updated methodology.
      • Pearson A.
      • White H.
      • Bath-Hextall F.
      • Salmond S.
      • Apostolo J.
      • Kirkpatrick P.
      A mixed-methods approach to systematic reviews.
      • Sandelowski M.
      • Voils C.I.
      • Barroso J.
      Defining and designing mixed research synthesis studies.
      to allow for a synthesis of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods empirical studies relevant to the research question. In this way, findings were maximized to gain knowledge on facilitators of and barriers to IPC. The flow diagram in Figure 1 displays the selection process. The protocol of this systematic review was registered at PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews at the University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination on July 5, 2020 (registration no. CRD42020177696).
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Fig. 1Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram.

      Search Strategy

      A systematic literature search in the databases of PubMed, Embase, Emcare, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Premier was conducted on March 12, 2020, and was updated on June 4, 2021. An additional search was performed on September 30, 2021, in the CINAHL database. These databases were chosen because of the scope of disciplines represented, in conjunction with the wide representation of international journals deemed relevant for this topic. The search involved the following key words: interprofessional collaboration, interdisciplinary, long-term care, geriatric rehabilitation, elderly, facilitators, and barriers, as well as their corresponding MeSH terms (Supplementary Material 1).
      After removing duplicates, the selection included a 2-stage process.
      • Higgins T.
      • Chandler
      Cumpston, Page, Welch. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 6.1 (updated September 2020).
      First, 2 researchers (A.D., H.S.) independently screened records based on their title and abstract to determine whether the articles met the inclusion criteria as shown in Table 1. During the second stage, the remaining full-text articles were retrieved. Two researchers (A.D., H.S.) independently screened the full-text articles against the inclusion criteria. After each step, results were compared and discussed. In case of disagreement, a third researcher (W.A.) was consulted.
      Table 1Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
      Types of Studies to Be IncludedTypes of Studies to Be Excluded
      • Human studies
      • Studies about interprofessional collaboration in institutional long-term care and inpatient geriatric rehabilitation for older adults aged ≥65 y
      • Studies using instruments to measure interprofessional collaboration in institutional long-term care and inpatient geriatric rehabilitation
      • Original research articles, irrespective of design, including quantitative and qualitative or mixed methods studies, case studies, cohort studies, and editorials by key opinion leaders, comparative studies, conference abstracts, theses
      • Studies using clear definitions of interprofessional, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary collaboration within the scope of the definition of the WHO
        • Gilbert J.H.
        • Yan J.
        • Hoffman S.J.
        A WHO report: framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice.
      • Languages: English, Dutch, Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew
      • Publication dates: no restrictions
      • Animal studies
      • Studies about collaboration outside health care or institutional long-term care or inpatient geriatric rehabilitation
      • Studies with older adults with a specific chronic disease outside institutional long-term care or inpatient geriatric rehabilitation
      • Web pages, study protocols, articles without abstract
      • Studies using the terms interprofessional, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary collaboration without providing a definition of the concepts used and not falling within the scope of the definition used by the WHO
        • Gilbert J.H.
        • Yan J.
        • Hoffman S.J.
        A WHO report: framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice.
      To identify instruments for assessing IPC, the same inclusion criteria were used. To maximize findings, the definition of IPC was left out. Five studies
      • Halabisky B.
      • Humbert J.
      • Stodel E.J.
      • et al.
      eLearning, knowledge brokering, and nursing: strengthening collaborative practice in long-term care.
      ,
      • Boscart V.M.
      • Heckman G.A.
      • Huson K.
      • et al.
      Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.
      • Mager D.R.
      • Lange J.
      Teambuilding across healthcare professions: the ELDER project.
      • Heckman G.A.
      • Boscart V.M.
      • Huson K.
      • et al.
      Enhancing Knowledge and InterProfessional care for Heart Failure (EKWIP-HF) in long-term care: a pilot study.
      • Reese C.
      • Sehlbrede M.
      • Brühmann B.A.
      • Farin-Glattacker E.
      How do nurses and physicians assess inter-professional collaboration in long-term care homes? A survey study.
      were identified that described instruments for assessing IPC. The original references mentioned in the included studies were then checked for any additional descriptive information about the instruments.
      Next, the methodologic quality of the included studies was independently assessed by 2 researchers (A.D., H.S.) independently using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT).
      • Hong Q.N.
      • Gonzalez-Reyes A.
      • Pluye P.
      Improving the usefulness of a tool for appraising the quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies, the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT).
      Results were compared and discussed. In case of disagreement, a third researcher (W.A.) was consulted. The MMAT is designed to appraise the methodologic quality of qualitative studies, randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized studies, quantitative descriptive studies, and mixed methods studies. The MMAT starts with 2 screening questions that address clarity of the research question and whether the data collected are sufficient to answer the research question. Additionally, there are 5 specific sets with 5 quality criteria for each type of research. Ratings vary between 0% (no quality criteria met) and 100% (all 5 quality criteria met).

      Data Analysis

      A thematic analysis was performed.
      • Thomas J.
      • Harden A.
      Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews.
      It enables a systematically grounded synthesis to bring together findings from the different types of research being used in this study.
      • Barnett-Page E.
      • Thomas J.
      Methods for the synthesis of qualitative research: a critical review.
      Codes were derived inductively and clustered in categories, which were then labeled to form the themes. Two researchers (A.D., H.S.) independently identified themes across the included studies followed by several sessions to reach consensus. A third researcher (W.A.) was consulted in case of any disagreement. Table 2 provides an overview of the codes, categories, and themes.
      Table 2An Overview of the Codes, Categories, and Themes of the Included Studies
      ThemesCategoriesCodes
      FacilitatorBarriers
      Team performanceCollaboration among health care professionals, patients, and family caregivers
      • Team members perceiving themselves as having equivalent status to other team members
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
        ,
        • Badger F.
        • Plumridge G.
        • Hewison A.
        • Shaw K.L.
        • Thomas K.
        • Clifford C.
        An evaluation of the impact of the Gold Standards Framework on collaboration in end-of-life care in nursing homes. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Understanding the contributions of team members
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Boscart V.M.
        • Heckman G.A.
        • Huson K.
        • et al.
        Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
        ,
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
        • Huijbregts M.
        • Sokoloff L.G.
        • Feldman Md S.
        • et al.
        Implementation of a mental health guideline in a long-term care home: a participatory action approach.
        • Clay M.
        Rehabilitation and older people.
        ,
        • Kaasalainen S.
        • Sussman T.
        • Bui M.
        • et al.
        What are the differences among occupational groups related to their palliative care-specific educational needs and intensity of interprofessional collaboration in long-term care homes?.
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Eagerness for cooperation
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
      • Team members being flexible and supportive
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Badger F.
        • Plumridge G.
        • Hewison A.
        • Shaw K.L.
        • Thomas K.
        • Clifford C.
        An evaluation of the impact of the Gold Standards Framework on collaboration in end-of-life care in nursing homes. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
        ,
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • A personality that enables to take on various new roles
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
      • Developing a team mentality
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Establishing norms for individual behaviors and the group as a whole
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Solid relationships building on a history of working together and communication between team members
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Reese C.
        • Sehlbrede M.
        • Brühmann B.A.
        • Farin-Glattacker E.
        How do nurses and physicians assess inter-professional collaboration in long-term care homes? A survey study.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        ,
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
        ,
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
        ,
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Team bonding through frequent social exchange
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Maintaining a dynamic balance between attachment to a professional reference group and attachment to the team
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Members promoting, maintaining, engaging, and sustaining the team
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
        ,
        • Boscart V.M.
        • Heckman G.A.
        • Huson K.
        • et al.
        Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.
        ,
        • Badger F.
        • Plumridge G.
        • Hewison A.
        • Shaw K.L.
        • Thomas K.
        • Clifford C.
        An evaluation of the impact of the Gold Standards Framework on collaboration in end-of-life care in nursing homes. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Engaging the whole team to encourage a culture shift toward a more engaged team dynamic
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
        ,
        • Cranley L.A.
        • Slaughter S.E.
        • Caspar S.
        • et al.
        Strategies to facilitate shared decision-making in long-term care.
      • Creating and maintaining positive working relationships
        • Aagaard K.
        • Meléndez-Torres G.J.
        • Overgaard C.
        Improving oral health in nursing home residents: a process evaluation of a shared oral care intervention.
        ,
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • Team members feeling acknowledged for contributions
        • Boscart V.M.
        • Heckman G.A.
        • Huson K.
        • et al.
        Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.
      • Achieving consensus in case of disagreements
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Collaboratively solving problems
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
      • Making recommendations concerning patient care with the whole team
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
      • Using interventions designed to improve communication and cooperation between staff and families
        • Robison J.
        • Curry L.
        • Gruman C.
        • Porter M.
        • Henderson Jr., C.R.
        • Pillemer K.
        Partners in caregiving in a special care environment: cooperative communication between staff and families on dementia units.
      • Avoiding conflicts and misunderstandings by exposing team members to each other's cultures
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
      • Organizing an ethnically diverse team
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
      • Creating ethnic concordance between the patient and the professional team members
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
      • Involving families
        • Robison J.
        • Curry L.
        • Gruman C.
        • Porter M.
        • Henderson Jr., C.R.
        • Pillemer K.
        Partners in caregiving in a special care environment: cooperative communication between staff and families on dementia units.
        ,
        • Cranley L.A.
        • Slaughter S.E.
        • Caspar S.
        • et al.
        Strategies to facilitate shared decision-making in long-term care.
      • Early and consistent involvement of patients
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        ,
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Holding team members accountable for their actions
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Use teamwork approach to address the task at hand
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Not knowing team members because of a high turnover of practitioners
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Working with many part-time and temporary staff
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • Conflicts within a team
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
      • Not reaching consensus about how to confront a problem
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Tension among groups of staff or team members
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Mager D.R.
        • Lange J.
        Teambuilding across healthcare professions: the ELDER project.
      • Intergroup boundaries
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Pressure by team members to change clinical judgments based on nonclinical factors
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Team members having difficulty with transition toward a more engaging and interactive team dynamic
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • Health Care Assistants positioning themselves outside the wider team
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
      • Presence of professional autonomy
        • Aagaard K.
        • Meléndez-Torres G.J.
        • Overgaard C.
        Improving oral health in nursing home residents: a process evaluation of a shared oral care intervention.
        ,
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
      • Absence of responsibility for making the groups work as a team
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Mismatch between expectations and reality of tasks by team members, patients, and family caregivers
        • Reese C.
        • Sehlbrede M.
        • Brühmann B.A.
        • Farin-Glattacker E.
        How do nurses and physicians assess inter-professional collaboration in long-term care homes? A survey study.
        ,
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        ,
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Lack of awareness of teamwork
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Cultural barriers between professionals
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
      Behavior and attitude of team members
      • Pitching in and expanding the capacity for working together
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Seeking assistance, being approachable, and reciprocating to promote connections between staff
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Showing appreciation by expressing a positive opinion of other people's actions
        • Reese C.
        • Sehlbrede M.
        • Brühmann B.A.
        • Farin-Glattacker E.
        How do nurses and physicians assess inter-professional collaboration in long-term care homes? A survey study.
        ,
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Giving respect and valuing others in a team
        • Reese C.
        • Sehlbrede M.
        • Brühmann B.A.
        • Farin-Glattacker E.
        How do nurses and physicians assess inter-professional collaboration in long-term care homes? A survey study.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
        ,
        • Clay M.
        Rehabilitation and older people.
        ,
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
        ,
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Paying attention, by making a conscious effort to stop, watch, and act
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Sharing and celebrating small successes within the team
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Willingness to listen to each other
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Supporting and being sensitive to one another's needs to protect others from varying physical aspects of care and unpleasant and disturbing sides of the job
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
        ,
        • Clay M.
        Rehabilitation and older people.
        ,
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Having a positive attitude and perception toward work and other team members
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
      • Building trust and relying on each other
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Aagaard K.
        • Meléndez-Torres G.J.
        • Overgaard C.
        Improving oral health in nursing home residents: a process evaluation of a shared oral care intervention.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
        • Cranley L.A.
        • Slaughter S.E.
        • Caspar S.
        • et al.
        Strategies to facilitate shared decision-making in long-term care.
        • Aagaard K.
        • Meléndez-Torres G.J.
        • Overgaard C.
        Improving oral health in nursing home residents: a process evaluation of a shared oral care intervention.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Team members feeling comfortable by team members to propose ideas in a team
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Members support flexibility and adaptability to change
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Tolerance among team members
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Team members have sense of belonging on a unit
        • Huijbregts M.
        • Sokoloff L.G.
        • Feldman Md S.
        • et al.
        Implementation of a mental health guideline in a long-term care home: a participatory action approach.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Team members are having the ability of providing one another with amusement
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
      • Enthusiasm of staff
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Emotional support for family caregivers when making difficult decisions
        • Cranley L.A.
        • Slaughter S.E.
        • Caspar S.
        • et al.
        Strategies to facilitate shared decision-making in long-term care.
      • Behavior patterns like blaming others, criticizing others, being unfriendly, act busy, doing the minimum, not doing tasks, not including key staff in collaboration
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
        ,
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Trust, respect, and commitment of team members is hindered by poor identity dynamics
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
      • Disregarding other team members
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
      • Team members ignoring each other
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Showing dismissive behavior toward one profession
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
      • Disrespecting more highly educated care workers
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Conflicts due to disagreements between team members on day-to-day issues
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Team members showing contempt by recognizing team shortcomings
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
      • Team members assigning a status to themselves
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
        ,
        • Kaasalainen S.
        • Sussman T.
        • Bui M.
        • et al.
        What are the differences among occupational groups related to their palliative care-specific educational needs and intensity of interprofessional collaboration in long-term care homes?.
      • Team members taking matters into own hands, thereby ignoring leadership roles
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Absence of confidence
        • Badger F.
        • Plumridge G.
        • Hewison A.
        • Shaw K.L.
        • Thomas K.
        • Clifford C.
        An evaluation of the impact of the Gold Standards Framework on collaboration in end-of-life care in nursing homes. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
      • Absence of critical thinking due to reactive nature of staff
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • The practice of postponing work tasks
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Disregarding decisions defined in the patient care plan
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Making a decision without the input of all team members
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
      • Disliking working in teams
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Team members feeling pushed by teamwork
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      Shared goals
      • Making joint interdisciplinary decisions
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
      • Having a shared vision
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        ,
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Understanding the team's goal
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Kaasalainen S.
        • Sussman T.
        • Bui M.
        • et al.
        What are the differences among occupational groups related to their palliative care-specific educational needs and intensity of interprofessional collaboration in long-term care homes?.
      • Making the prioritization of goals evident by using a goal matrix (long term vs short term, and task goal vs maintenance goal)
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Setting priorities with the team to pursue the shared goals
        • Reese C.
        • Sehlbrede M.
        • Brühmann B.A.
        • Farin-Glattacker E.
        How do nurses and physicians assess inter-professional collaboration in long-term care homes? A survey study.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        ,
        • Clay M.
        Rehabilitation and older people.
      • Sharing accountability by relying on the team to validate findings
        • Boscart V.M.
        • Heckman G.A.
        • Huson K.
        • et al.
        Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.
      • Moving the team from best possible outcome to specific goals
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Stimulating patient's input when establishing treatment goals
        • Cranley L.A.
        • Slaughter S.E.
        • Caspar S.
        • et al.
        Strategies to facilitate shared decision-making in long-term care.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Differentiating whether goals benefit the patient or the team
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Making the patient and family responsible for the care plan with shared goals and a shared approach
        • Aagaard K.
        • Meléndez-Torres G.J.
        • Overgaard C.
        Improving oral health in nursing home residents: a process evaluation of a shared oral care intervention.
        ,
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        ,
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Using objective measures to enhance the process of goal-setting
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Reported problems do not reflect the goals identified in the interdisciplinary treatment plan
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
      • Involving patients who are not mentally competent in the goal-setting process
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Embracing own personal and professional goals to the exclusion of others
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Unclear definition of shared goals
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Absence of a shared vision
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Unclear capabilities and responsibilities in relation to specific goals
        • Aagaard K.
        • Meléndez-Torres G.J.
        • Overgaard C.
        Improving oral health in nursing home residents: a process evaluation of a shared oral care intervention.
        ,
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      Clarity of roles
      • Recognizing roles and skills within a team
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Mager D.R.
        • Lange J.
        Teambuilding across healthcare professions: the ELDER project.
        ,
        • Badger F.
        • Plumridge G.
        • Hewison A.
        • Shaw K.L.
        • Thomas K.
        • Clifford C.
        An evaluation of the impact of the Gold Standards Framework on collaboration in end-of-life care in nursing homes. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
        ,
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        ,
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
        ,
        • Kaasalainen S.
        • Sussman T.
        • Bui M.
        • et al.
        What are the differences among occupational groups related to their palliative care-specific educational needs and intensity of interprofessional collaboration in long-term care homes?.
      • Clarity about roles in family-staff partnership
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
        ,
        • Bramble M.
        • Moyle W.
        • Shum D.
        A quasi-experimental design trial exploring the effect of a partnership intervention on family and staff well-being in long-term dementia care.
      • Using common language to clarify professional roles
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • Teambuilding exercises to allow for better understanding of other providers roles
        • Mager D.R.
        • Lange J.
        Teambuilding across healthcare professions: the ELDER project.
      • Conflicting or misaligned expectations regarding professional roles
        • Robison J.
        • Curry L.
        • Gruman C.
        • Porter M.
        • Henderson Jr., C.R.
        • Pillemer K.
        Partners in caregiving in a special care environment: cooperative communication between staff and families on dementia units.
        ,
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • Team members are not recognized and underrepresented within the team
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        ,
        • Huijbregts M.
        • Sokoloff L.G.
        • Feldman Md S.
        • et al.
        Implementation of a mental health guideline in a long-term care home: a participatory action approach.
      • Limited knowledge regarding the roles and expertise of other disciplines
        • Robison J.
        • Curry L.
        • Gruman C.
        • Porter M.
        • Henderson Jr., C.R.
        • Pillemer K.
        Partners in caregiving in a special care environment: cooperative communication between staff and families on dementia units.
        ,
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        ,
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Not knowing the impact of one's involvement within a team
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Unclear who is responsible for bringing disciplines and information together
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Role conflict between staff and family
        • Bramble M.
        • Moyle W.
        • Shum D.
        A quasi-experimental design trial exploring the effect of a partnership intervention on family and staff well-being in long-term dementia care.
      Organizational conditionsWorkplace process
      • Involving team members when making changes in processes and procedures
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
      • Involving 1 or more team members who make it easier or possible to achieve the objectives of teamwork
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Authorizing staff and promoting the adoption of proactive models to work with other practitioners
        • Badger F.
        • Plumridge G.
        • Hewison A.
        • Shaw K.L.
        • Thomas K.
        • Clifford C.
        An evaluation of the impact of the Gold Standards Framework on collaboration in end-of-life care in nursing homes. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
      • Establishing a shared mental model, which allows individuals to coordinate their efforts to complete interdependent tasks more consistently
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • Working with a comprehensive and planned approach
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
        ,
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • An institutional philosophy that endorses interdisciplinary coordination
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
        ,
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
        ,
        • Clay M.
        Rehabilitation and older people.
        ,
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
      • Attending to formal and social processes to minimize conflict
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Influencing procedural boundaries (who and what enters the team, and how)
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Formal team-based care
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
        ,
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Joint evaluation of projects to strengthen organizational ties
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
      • Ongoing reflection for continuous improvement of the full team, through formal mechanisms like quality audits, as well as regularly scheduled team meetings
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        ,
        • Clay M.
        Rehabilitation and older people.
      • Appointing observers within a group to evaluate and report dynamics of the groups relevant for discussion
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Staff working both day and evening shifts to create better understanding and knowledge exchange across shifts
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Policies that reflect a strong family orientation
        • Robison J.
        • Curry L.
        • Gruman C.
        • Porter M.
        • Henderson Jr., C.R.
        • Pillemer K.
        Partners in caregiving in a special care environment: cooperative communication between staff and families on dementia units.
      • Rotating responsibility for chairing meetings to provide the experience for all members
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Structure working with GPs by contracting them, working with a small number of them and having them visit frequently
        • Badger F.
        • Plumridge G.
        • Hewison A.
        • Shaw K.L.
        • Thomas K.
        • Clifford C.
        An evaluation of the impact of the Gold Standards Framework on collaboration in end-of-life care in nursing homes. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
      • Ignoring what is happening in the current environment as a result of relying strongly on rules and policies
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Prioritizing institutional goals over more patient-centered discussions
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
      • Interprofessional collaboration not equally supported by professed and actual values of the institution
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Absence of organizational leadership for implementation of practice development
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • Structurally nested organizational hierarchies
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
        ,
        • Kaasalainen S.
        • Sussman T.
        • Bui M.
        • et al.
        What are the differences among occupational groups related to their palliative care-specific educational needs and intensity of interprofessional collaboration in long-term care homes?.
      • Inadequate organization of out-of-hours services
        • Badger F.
        • Plumridge G.
        • Hewison A.
        • Shaw K.L.
        • Thomas K.
        • Clifford C.
        An evaluation of the impact of the Gold Standards Framework on collaboration in end-of-life care in nursing homes. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
      • Relocating team members and patients
        • Bramble M.
        • Moyle W.
        • Shum D.
        A quasi-experimental design trial exploring the effect of a partnership intervention on family and staff well-being in long-term dementia care.
      • Disruption of team composition
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Evaluating processes with monodisciplinary personnel
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Regulatory constraints such as limited reimbursement for services for particular team members
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Implementing a collaborative framework without considering the strong identity of some disciplines
        • Lloyd V.
        • Schneider J.
        • Scales K.
        • Bailey S.
        • Jones R.
        Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.
      • Scheduling conflicts leading to limited ability to attend meetings
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Huijbregts M.
        • Sokoloff L.G.
        • Feldman Md S.
        • et al.
        Implementation of a mental health guideline in a long-term care home: a participatory action approach.
      • General practitioners (GPs) fail to keep promises about visits
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Absence of coordination of care to create integrated care plans
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Working with a large number of GPs from different practices
        • Badger F.
        • Plumridge G.
        • Hewison A.
        • Shaw K.L.
        • Thomas K.
        • Clifford C.
        An evaluation of the impact of the Gold Standards Framework on collaboration in end-of-life care in nursing homes. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
      • Duplication of services
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Different work practices across units making it difficult to take on tasks in other units
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • A sense of ownership in the own unit
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • A sense of insecurity and unfamiliarity with other units
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Long distances between physical locations making it difficult to relieve each other within and between care units
        • Mager D.R.
        • Lange J.
        Teambuilding across healthcare professions: the ELDER project.
        ,
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      Availability of resources
      • Working together to apply, revise, and develop IPC processes through access to necessary resources (eg, materials, time, budget, and space)
        • Boscart V.M.
        • Heckman G.A.
        • Huson K.
        • et al.
        Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.
        ,
        • Reese C.
        • Sehlbrede M.
        • Brühmann B.A.
        • Farin-Glattacker E.
        How do nurses and physicians assess inter-professional collaboration in long-term care homes? A survey study.
        ,
        • Aagaard K.
        • Meléndez-Torres G.J.
        • Overgaard C.
        Improving oral health in nursing home residents: a process evaluation of a shared oral care intervention.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
        ,
        • Huijbregts M.
        • Sokoloff L.G.
        • Feldman Md S.
        • et al.
        Implementation of a mental health guideline in a long-term care home: a participatory action approach.
        ,
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Organizational capacity for successful influencing of implementation
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
        ,
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Organizational security for adequate staffing to function (sustainably) as a team
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Willingness of administration to support a team with necessary resources
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
      • Dedicating human resources to support collaboration
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Continuous management attention to and investment in interpersonal and team skills training
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
      • Spending time and effort to make the team work and to maintain this
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Institutional support to improve interaction with other professions
        • MacEntee M.I.
        Muted dental voices on interprofessional healthcare teams.
        ,
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Resource-constrained environment
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
        ,
        • Bramble M.
        • Moyle W.
        • Shum D.
        A quasi-experimental design trial exploring the effect of a partnership intervention on family and staff well-being in long-term dementia care.
      • Limited opportunity for appropriate team consultation moments and poor availability of space for all disciplines
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Fragmented, profession-specific, or inaccessible support
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • Limited reimbursement for services for particular team members
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Staff shortages
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Time constraints regarding the care
        • Bokhour B.G.
        Communication in interdisciplinary team meetings: what are we talking about?.
        ,
        • Robison J.
        • Curry L.
        • Gruman C.
        • Porter M.
        • Henderson Jr., C.R.
        • Pillemer K.
        Partners in caregiving in a special care environment: cooperative communication between staff and families on dementia units.
        ,
        • Mager D.R.
        • Lange J.
        Teambuilding across healthcare professions: the ELDER project.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      Leadership
      • Supportive leadership encouraging and involving all members on a team to participate
        • Boscart V.M.
        • Heckman G.A.
        • Huson K.
        • et al.
        Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.
        ,
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
        ,
        • Cranley L.A.
        • Slaughter S.E.
        • Caspar S.
        • et al.
        Strategies to facilitate shared decision-making in long-term care.
        ,
        • Huijbregts M.
        • Sokoloff L.G.
        • Feldman Md S.
        • et al.
        Implementation of a mental health guideline in a long-term care home: a participatory action approach.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Shared leadership during meetings
        • Boscart V.M.
        • Heckman G.A.
        • Huson K.
        • et al.
        Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.
      • Dual leadership by dividing leadership into 2 areas: task related vs team related
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Strong leadership based on organizational mandates
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Balance between responsibility (achievement expectation) and authority (organizational freedom and influence)
        • Aagaard K.
        • Meléndez-Torres G.J.
        • Overgaard C.
        Improving oral health in nursing home residents: a process evaluation of a shared oral care intervention.
        ,
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Leader facilitating regular communication between all members of the care team
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
        ,
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Leaders representing all parties involved
        • Foli K.
        • Malley K.
        Implementing an interdisciplinary healthcare quality project.
      • Providing guidance through supervision and feedback
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Decisive managers providing direct problem solving and coordination
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
        ,
        • Temkin-Greener H.
        • Gross D.
        • Kunitz S.J.
        • Mukamel D.
        Measuring interdisciplinary team performance in a long-term care setting.
        ,
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Providing a managerial framework for the day-to-day work tasks
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Identifying a team coordinator to address disagreements over leadership
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Openly recognizing and discussing the tensions between traditional and interprofessional discourses of collaborative leadership
        • Tsakitzidis G.
        • Anthierens S.
        • Timmermans O.
        • Truijen S.
        • Meulemans H.
        • Van Royen P.
        Do not confuse multidisciplinary task management in nursing homes with interprofessional care!.
      • Providing leaders with training on team management and quality improvement
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
      • Assuming that leadership is monolithic and unitary
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Believing that leadership is a trait, a genetic quality, fate, or professional discipline
        • Chafetz P.
        • West H.
        • Ebbs E.
        Overcoming obstacles to cooperation in interdisciplinary long-term care teams.
      • Missing the necessary conflict resolution skills
        • Jakobsen L.M.
        • Albertsen K.
        • Jorgensen A.F.B.
        • Greiner B.A.
        • Rugulies R.
        Collaboration among eldercare workers: barriers, facilitators and supporting processes.
      • Failing to bring together team members
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Minimal leadership and support from management
        • Reese C.
        • Sehlbrede M.
        • Brühmann B.A.
        • Farin-Glattacker E.
        How do nurses and physicians assess inter-professional collaboration in long-term care homes? A survey study.
        ,
        • Aagaard K.
        • Meléndez-Torres G.J.
        • Overgaard C.
        Improving oral health in nursing home residents: a process evaluation of a shared oral care intervention.
        ,
        • Bramble M.
        • Moyle W.
        • Shum D.
        A quasi-experimental design trial exploring the effect of a partnership intervention on family and staff well-being in long-term dementia care.
      • Absence of leadership at administrative level
        • Kaldy J.
        Best practices: faces of teamwork in long-term care.
      • Disagreement over leadership and the distribution of authority
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      • Absence of training in skills necessary for successful team leadership
        • Saltz C.C.
        The interdisciplinary team in geriatric rehabilitation.
      Sharing informationBasic communication skills
      • Talking with other people to make sense of confusing information or situations
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Clarifying the meaning of exchanged information
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Verifying that shared information is understood by others
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Actively engage in direct communication with others
        • Boscart V.M.
        • Heckman G.A.
        • Huson K.
        • et al.
        Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.
      • Active dialogue to exchange information
        • Desveaux L.
        • Halko R.
        • Marani H.
        • Feldman S.
        • Ivers N.M.
        Importance of team functioning as a target of quality improvement initiatives in nursing homes: a qualitative process evaluation.
        ,
        • Poškutė V.
        • Kazlauskaitė R.
        • Matonytė I.
        Stakeholder collaboration in long-term care of older people in Lithuania.
      • Listening to promote new information exchange
        • Mager D.R.
        • Lange J.
        Teambuilding across healthcare professions: the ELDER project.
        ,
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Asking questions to explain when feeling uneasy about something and when feeling not heard
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Toles M.P.
        • Corazzini K.
        • McDaniel R.R.
        • Colon-Emeric C.
        Local interaction strategies and capacity for better care in nursing homes: a multiple case study.
      • Exchanging (timely) feedback
        • Aagaard K.
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