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A Profile of Black and Latino Older Adults Receiving Care in Nursing Homes: 2011–2017

      Abstract

      Objective

      To identify if disparate trends in the access and use of nursing home (NH) services among Black and Latino older adults compared with White older adults persist. Access was operationalized as the NHs that served Black, Latino, and White residents. Use was operationalized as the utilization of NH services by Black, Latino, and White residents.

      Design

      This was an observational study analyzing facility-level data from LTCfocus for 2011 to 2017.

      Setting and Participants

      All NH residents present in US NHs participating in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services program on the first Thursday in April in the years 2011 to 2017. NHs with fewer than 4500 bed-days per year are excluded in the LCTfocus dataset. Black, Latino, and White were the racial/ethnic groups of interest.

      Methods

      We calculated the mean percentage of each racial/ethnic group in NHs (Black, Latino, White) annually along with the number of NHs that provided care for these groups. We conducted a simple trend analysis using ordinary least squares to estimate the change in NH access and use by racial/ethnic group over time.

      Results

      Our NH sample ranged from 15,564 in 2011 to 14,956 in 2017. Latino residents' use of NHs increased by 20.47% and Black residents increased by 11.42%, whereas there was a 1.36% decrease in White residents’ use of NHs. In this 7-year span, there was a 4.44% and 6.41% decline in the number of NHs that serve any Black and Latino older adults, respectively, compared with a 2.26% decline in NHs that serve only White older adults (access).

      Conclusions and Implications

      Our findings reveal a continued disproportionate rise in Black and Latino older adults’ use of NHs while the number of NHs that serve this population have declined. This work can inform federal and state policies to ensure access to long-term care services and supports in the community for all older adults and prevent inappropriate NH closures.

      Keywords

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