Predictors of Maintained Transitions Between Robustness and Prefrailty in Community-dwelling Older Spaniards

Published:November 17, 2022DOI:



      We aimed to explore predictors of sustained transitions (those that are maintained for an extra follow-up) between robustness and prefrailty in both directions.


      Longitudinal population-based cohort.

      Setting and Participants

      Community-dwelling Spaniards 65 years or older from the Toledo Study of Healthy Ageing.


      The Fried's frailty phenotype was measured over 3 waves (2006–2009, 2011–2013, and 2014–2017). Multiple logistic regressions compared individuals following the pattern robust-prefrail-prefrail with those who remained robust across waves, and those following the pattern prefrail-robust-robust with those who remained prefrail, for sociodemographic, clinical, life-habits, dependency for activities of daily living, upper and lower extremities’ strength variables. The Fried's items of those who remained prefrail and those who became robust were compared.


      Mean age was 72.3 years (95% CI: 71.8–72.8) and 57.9% (52.7%–63.0%) were women. After multivariate adjustment, predictors (apart from age) of the sustained transition robustness-prefrailty were as follows: number of drugs taken (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.14–1.65), not declaring the amount of alcohol consumed (8.32; 1.78–38.88), and grip strength (0.92 per kg; 0.86–0.99). Predictors of the sustained transition prefrailty-robustness were as follows: drinking alcohol (0.2; 0.05–0.83), uricemia (0.67; 0.49–0.93), number of chair stands in 30 seconds (1.14; 1.01–1.28), and grip strength (1.12; 1.05–1.2). Low grip strength was associated with a lower probability of regaining robustness.

      Conclusions and Implications

      Prediction of sustained transitions between the first stages of frailty development can be achieved with a reduced number of variables and noting whether the Fried's item leading to a diagnosis of prefrailty is low grip strength. Our results suggest the need to intensify interventions on deprescription, quitting alcohol, and strengthening of upper and lower limbs.


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