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Grip Strength and Sarcopenia Predict 2-Year Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

  • Tao-Chun Peng
    Affiliations
    Division of Family Medicine and Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan

    Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan

    Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Jeng-Min Chiou
    Affiliations
    Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Nankang District, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Ta-Fu Chen
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Yen-Ching Chen
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Yen-Ching Chen, ScD, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; or Jen-Hau Chen, MD, MPH, PhD, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 1 Jen Ai Road Section 1, Taipei 100233, Taiwan.
    Affiliations
    Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

    Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Jen-Hau Chen
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Yen-Ching Chen, ScD, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; or Jen-Hau Chen, MD, MPH, PhD, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 1 Jen Ai Road Section 1, Taipei 100233, Taiwan.
    Affiliations
    Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

    Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
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Published:November 23, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2022.10.015

      Abstract

      Objectives

      Using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS2019) and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) criteria, this study examined associations of sarcopenia and its components with specific domains of cognitive impairment over time.

      Design

      A prospective cohort study with a 2-year follow-up.

      Setting and Participants

      This study is part of the [blinded for review], which recruited participants aged 65 years old who attended the senior health checkup program at [blinded for review].

      Methods

      Grip strength was measured using a handgrip dynamometer. Walking speed (m/s) was measured as the time required to walk 8 feet. Muscle mass was measured by performing a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Global cognition (assessed using the Taiwanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and 4 cognitive domains (memory, executive function, verbal fluency, and attention) were assessed over time. Associations of sarcopenia and its components with cognitive impairment were evaluated after stratification by sex using generalized linear mixed models adjusted for essential covariates for cognitive impairment.

      Results

      Compared with robust women, those with severe sarcopenia were more likely to have a global cognitive impairment over time (β = −0.87, P = .03 based on AWGS2019 criteria and β = −1.07, P = .02 based on the EWGSOP2 criteria). Among men, low grip strength was associated with poor scores on measures of global cognition (β = −0.80, P = .03), executive function (β = −0.35, P = .001), verbal fluency (β = −0.31, P = .02), and attention (β = −0.34, P = .008) over time.

      Conclusions and Implications

      Severe sarcopenia predicted global and specific domains of cognitive impairment in older adults. Poor grip strength predicted cognitive impairment in men but not in women. A screen for sarcopenia severity and low muscle strength may be used to identify the risk of cognitive impairment.

      Keywords

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