Setting and Participants
Conclusions and Implications
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This work was sponsored by the National Major Science and Technology Projects of China (2020YFC2005600), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (72004201), the Economic and Social Research Council South Coast Doctoral Training Partnership (ES/P000673/1), and the National Institute on Aging (R01AG077529; K01AG053408; P30AG021342). The data analyzed in this report were provided by the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), which has been jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71490732) and the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC2000400), China. The funders had no role in study design, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data.
YS conceived the study and HJ, CW contributed to the design of the study. CW acquired funding for the research. YS, HJ, SP reviewed the literature. HJ, YS, CW developed the methods. HJ conducted statistical analysis and created figures and tables. YP replicated the analysis to verify statistical rigor. HJ and CW wrote the first draft of remaining manuscript. YS, XC, XL, DW, SP, YP, YL, HL provided critical feedback on the first draft, including the analysis and interpretation of data, and YS and DW contributed to the writing of subsequent drafts of the manuscript. YS and CW managed the estimation process. All the authors gave final approval of this manuscript. Each author fulfills each of authorship requirements.
It was not appropriate or possible to involve patients or the public in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of our research.
CLHLS was approved by Research Ethics Committees of Peking University (IRB00001052–13074). All interviewees were required to provide informed consent.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
All analyses were performed using Stata v 17.0 (Stata Corp).